- Haustenbeck’s Heritage: Rise and Fall
- Haustenbeck’s Heritage: Taking Inventory
- Haustenbeck’s Heritage: Jagdtiger 305 004’s Journey
- Haustenbeck’s Heritage: Journey of Tiger II V2
- Tiger II Fgst.Nr. 280 009 or 280 012 Revisited
For the past two years, I have been working on a series of articles on Henschel’s test site at Haustenbeck. So far, I have covered the origin and use of the site, as well as most of the vehicles that were present during and after the war. All these articles have paved the way for me to write about what I think is the most fascinating vehicle found at Haustenbeck: Tiger II V2. I have put it off for a long time, first wandering off to write about the evolution of its tracks and the origin of its name, but in this article I will finally cover this vehicle in detail.
Out of an original batch of 50 vehicles, V2 is the only surviving specimen mounting a streamlined “pre-production” turret. It is the second Tiger II ever produced and was used for testing at Henschel’s Panzerversuchsstation 96 at Haustenbeck. After the war, it was captured and taken to the UK, where it has been preserved in the collection of the Tank Museum. In this article, we will follow the journey this rare tank has made and along the way we will also meet its companions: V1 and V3. The story of V2’s particularly interesting pre-production turret will be the subject of a separate article, which will be published in due time.
The author would like to thank Alfred Staarman and Chris van Schaardenburgh for allowing unprecedented access to Tiger II V2.
Table of Contents
- Kassel-Mittelfeld, Werk 3
- The Odd Ones Out
- V1, the Showpiece
- Fgst.Nr. V2
- What about V3?
- Im Testbetrieb
- Captured at Haustenbeck
- To Bovington and Beyond
- King Tiger on Tour
Kassel-Mittelfeld, Werk 3
Our journey starts in northern Kassel on the Vellmarschestrasse1. Located on this street is one of Henschel und Sohn‘s three plants, called Mittelfeld. Originally, trucks and locomotives were produced at the Mittelfeld plant, also known as “Werk 3″2. During the war, Henschel’s tank assembly shifted to the Mittelfeld plant and in 1942 a production line for the Tiger tank was set up in one of the large halls, specifically Halle 3 (shop 3). The plant itself was conveniently located on a railway hub, which meant finished tanks could be loaded directly onto flatbed wagons, ready for transport to the Heereszeugämter.
As early as October 1942, when design work was still ongoing, contracts for building the Tiger II were awarded to Henschel. Apart from a series production contract, a separate contract calling for three Versuchs-Fahrgestelle, prototype vehicles, with chassis numbers V1, V2 and V3 was awarded by Wa Prüf 63.
Speer’s Reichsministerium für Bewaffnung und Munition had pushed for a production start as early as July 19434, but this was later pushed back until September. In May 1943, Henschel reported they did not agree with the scheduled start date5 and could not start series production before January/February 1944. Sawatzki6, responsible for Tiger production at Henschel, urged to delay the Tiger II, such that production could transfer, while the Tiger I was being phased out7. He also noted that until the transition was made, only 1 to 2 Versuchsgeräte (prototypes) could be built each month by the workshop.
The Odd Ones Out
And yet, the first Tiger II tanks were still built before the turn of 1944. The first prototype, V1, was completed in October, followed by V2 and V3 in December. Series production started in January, but ongoing problems with the new Olvar B transmission, kept Henschel struggling to meet their Tiger II quotas. They therefore were obliged to keep Tiger I production going. This way, both Tiger variants were assembled side by side up through August 1944, when the Tiger I was finally discontinued.
The three prototypes built in 1943 differed from the later series-production vehicles in several ways. For example, they did not have the usual Zimmerit coating. They also had a unique style of track guards, reminiscent of those on the Tiger I. On V2, remnants of the first section are still present, although the track guards themselves are sadly missing. The unique bracket to hold the fender in place is still present on the left side, albeit heavily bent.
Another notable detail on the prototypes are the exhaust pipes. These are, like later production Tiger II tanks, of the bent type. This is in contrast to the first series of production tanks that had a straight pipe with diffuser. The exhaust pipes on V2 were further modified for testing during his career. I will come back to this in detail later.
In addition to the above, there are some features that are not so much unique to the prototypes, but are characteristic of very early Tiger II tanks. One example is the deep wading system that was present on all prototypes. This feature was rather short-lived, and only a handful of production vehicles through March 1944 were equipped with it. A prominent feature of this system is the armoured pot on the rear engine deck, protecting the telescopic snorkel that would be extended while fording.
There are a few more features on the hull that are indicative of an early Tiger II. For example, the shape around the tow hooks on V2 is still according to the original design. The design was later modified to allow space for fitting a C-hook at the front and to allow the shackle to hinge all the way up at the rear. This change was not implemented on vehicles until April 1944.
A similar ‘shape change’ took place on the sloping front plate. Starting in April, a notch was cut into the leading edge of the plate, just in front of the radio operator’s visor, improving his forward vision. V2 does not yet have this feature implemented. The last picture below shows the presence of the cut-out on the Tiger II at La Gleize.
A last feature I would like to discuss here is again related to the track guards. In the course of production, the attachment points for the side segments were changed several times. In the middle of the last segment, an extra mounting plate was added at some point in time. This plate is not present on the prototypes. Contrary to what the drawings in Jentz and Doyle’s book suggest, this plate was also lacking on some of the first series production vehicles.
V1, the Showpiece
As mentioned above, the very first Tiger II with chassis No. V1, was completed in October 1943. Remarkably, five months earlier, in May, Henschel had already asked Krupp to prepare one bare mild-steel hull (Flußeisenwanne) as fast as possible7. It can only be assumed that this hull was meant for what would later become V1.
After V1 was officially accepted by the Heereswaffenamt in November 1943, it was shipped to Kummersdorf. As was common with vehicles at Kummersdorf, V1 received a kind of inventory number known as Verskraftnummer. Its number, 190, was subsequently stencilled on the glacis inside a circle. Unlike all other tanks, V1 was devoid of any of the usual external equipment and tools, as well as any of the accompanying tool clamps.
Apparently, Henschel’s Versuchsabteilung, normally working from Haustenbeck, travelled after the tank, filing their first Tiger II related report at the end of December8. In these early reports, Oberingeneur Kurt Arnoldt addresses a variety of subjects9. For starters, the procedure of changing the transport tracks to combat tracks was described. Furthermore, remarkable details of the running gear and the deep wading system were covered, as well as what problems were anticipated with these components.
However, not much time could be spent testing at Kummersdorf. On October 20, Hitler had been demonstrated a full-scale wooden mock-up of the Tiger II, and he now insisted on seeing the actual vehicle10. The ink on the Tiger’s data sheet, signed Kummersdorf, December, 14, 1943, was barely dry before V1 was transported to the Wolfsschanze in Rastenburg (Ketrzyn), Poland11. Here it was demonstrated just two days later12. The video below shows how V1 and other vehicles being presented to Hitler’s delegation by Holzhäuer of Wa Prüf 6 – disregard the date in the video’s title card as it is incorrect.
After the demonstration, V1 was returned to Kummersdorf where it was photographed with other vehicles in early 1944. One of these photos was included in the revised tank recognition table “Panzer-Erkennungstafel 4″ of November 1, 1944, which for the first time also contained a description of the Tiger II13:
Weight: 68.0 t.
Armament: 1 8.8 cm Kw K 43 (L/71)
2 MG 34
Front-wheel drive, Staffellaufwerk with 5 outer large running wheels, without support rollers. Tracks overbuilt by chassis upper part. Sloping front and sidewalls. Spacious turret narrowing upwards with left-hand commander’s cupola. Long-barrelled gun in gun shield with muzzle brake.
Note that in both the video and recognition photos, V1 is equipped with “protective rails” mounted on the roof surrounding the turret. The mounting of the rails must have been in response to the initial findings at Kummersdorf and as well as the already known problems with Krupp’s initial turret design (e.g. shot-trap). These flaws will be discussed in-detail in a separate article.
By the end of December 1943, V2 and V3 had also been completed at Werk 3 in Kassel3. Both were accepted in January 1944. V1 remained at Kummersdorf to be tested further by Wa Prüf 6. The Henschel firm, which had been investing heavily in tank research and development, felt the need for their own Tiger II for testing purposes. This was to be the second Tiger II, with Fahrgestellnummer V2. Subsequently, V2 was taken to Henschel’s Panzerversuchsstation 96 at Haustenbeck and remained there until the end of the war.
The following photos from the Tank Museum archive were published in Panzer Tracts 614. The combination of location, time and characteristics of the tank leave no doubt they show V2 at Haustenbeck.
The photos show the tank located on one of the entry ramps to Haustenbeck’s large submersion pool. In the last photo a watchtower can also just be made out. Several such watchtowers surrounded said proving ground. Remarkably, V2 is seen here on transport tracks, without track guards and appears to be crewed by four civilian workers. The trees and patches of snow leave no doubt these photos were taken during winter 1943-44. This could mean they were taken in January 1944, just after V2’s acceptance by the Heereswaffenamt.
This theory is confirmed by another photo, dated January 1944. The photo comes from the estate of engineer Gustav Wicke, a close colleague of Kurt Arnoldt15. It was first published in Schneider’s “Tigers in Combat” and is reproduced here in high-quality courtesy of Ludwig Teichmann.
In this unique photo, we see V2 in full fighting trim. It has now been fitted with combat tracks and track quards. In the foreground the proving ground’s petrol pump is visible, while in the background part of the wooden fence can be seen, that was erected to hide testing activities from passers-by. Apparently, personnel of the Tiger-Lehrgänge have come to view the new vehicle and are given a demonstration. A group of officers on the engine deck appears to be lectured on the wading equipment.
What about V3?
Until now, there has been hardly any information on V3’s whereabouts, but my guess is this prototype has been used as an automotive test bed at Maybach. During the war, it was not unusual for new vehicles to be sent to Maybach in Friedrichshafen for extensive testing. The photo below, taken at Maybach’s Panzerwiesen test track at Markdorf-Gehrenberg, unmistakably shows one of the prototypes, recognizable by their flat track guards. The vehicle in the picture is not V1, as it has all the tool clamps, nor is it V2 which was tied up at Haustenbeck. Though we might never be 100% sure, the Tiger in the photo may very well be V3.
After its arrival at Haustenbeck, V2 was quickly taken im Testbetrieb – in trial operation. First trial runs must have started approximately in early February, and the first known test report dates from February 9, 19449. Observations made during the trial runs were recorded in short reports. Each of these reports concisely recorded remarks on the experienced problems – often by means of captioned images. Numerous issues were documented in this way. Many of them were just minor flaws, some only present on V2, but others actually led to design tweaks. Spielberger drew extensively from these reports in his book on the Tiger and its variants, and most of the photographs contained in said reports have been published in his work4.
One of the earliest recorded issues was regarding the placement of the air filters. One of the filter housings had been dented, severely complicating its removal during routine engine maintenance. The main concern here was that this issue would not be confined to V2 alone, but could also occur on series production tanks. The report therefore concluded:
It should be checked immediately whether in this case it is an assembly error on Versuchsfahrzeug Nr.2 or whether there are any dimensional irregularities [presumably with the air filters – author].Arnoldt, “Bericht Über: Luftfiltereinbau im Tiger B / V2 (Nr.252).” [translation by author]
In a report filed on the next day, problems were of an entirely different nature. This time, an issue with the submerging equipment was described: the telescopic snorkel tubes could no longer be extended because they expanded due to engine heat. Moreover, it was found that dust and water entering between different pipe sections caused the segments to clamp in such a way that additional tools were needed to loosen them.
On February 11, after having driven 284 km, an issue with the internal gun travel lock was noted. The travel lock, which swivelled down from the turret roof, had bent out of shape and was now unable to secure the gun in place. A new and improved specimen was promptly manufactured and installed.
By the end of March, just over 800 km had been traversed. It was at this time that excessive wear on every second sprocket tooth became evident. The culprit was found to be an unevenly pitched track. Interestingly, the sprocket rings were not replaced after this incident, and the wear described in the report can be seen to this day! I dedicated an entire article to the history and problems of the Tiger II’s interesting tracks, which you can find here.
The table below shows a selection of test reports for which it is certain they relate to Tiger II V2. These reports were all signed by Versuchsleitung (test director) Kurt Arnoldt, and distributed to chief designer Erwin Aders, board member Fritz Hinz1, as well as Hauptmann Körtge at the OKH.
|251||Kraftstoffpumpen neueste Ausführung für Maybach-Motor HL 230 „Tiger B“||Fuel pumps||9/2/44|
|252||Luftfiltereibau im „Tiger B“/V 2||Air filter installation||10/2/44|
|253||Teleskopanlage am „Tiger B“/V 2||Telescopic wading installation||10/2/44|
|254||Höhenzurrung am „Tiger B“/V 2||Internal gun travel lock||11/2/44|
|255||Schottwandklappe am „Tiger B“/V 2||Engine fire wall door||11/2/44|
|263||Wasserablaß-Verschraubung unter dem Wannenboden des „Tiger B“/V 2||Water drain valve cover underneath the hull||?/?/44|
|268||Bodenklappe am Funkersitz||Escape hatch||21/3/44|
|269||Laufwerk am „Tiger B“/V 2||Suspension||23/3/44|
Captured at Haustenbeck
When the Haustenbeck site was captured by the Americans in April 1945, V2 was still present. From the summer of 1945, the proving ground came under British control. They recognized the value of the testing activities and continued the proving ground’s operation until the end of 1945. A delegation from the Ministry of Supply inspected the site on August 25, 1945. Arnoldt and his assistant Laufeld gave a brief description of V2:
Royal Tiger, in running condition; completely gas proof, and adapted to wade through 30 ft. of water. (…)BIOS, “The Henschel Panzerversuchsstation, Haustenbeck, Paderborn.”
Characteristic of V2 was its adaptation to be able to wade through 9 m of water. Only a few of the earliest Tiger II’s possessed this feature. It is unfortunate that the most identifiable part of this system, the cast cover on the engine deck, has been lost to time. On the basis of this description, it appears that V2 was still in a fully operational condition at the time of its capture.
It is striking that apart from being able to deep wade, V2 was also made completely gas-tight. A silent witness to this fact are its modified exhaust pipes. It is sometimes claimed that the exhaust was modified solely to “measure exhaust pressure”, but this explanation is not very convincing.
In view of Arnoldt’s work regarding AFV gas proofing conducted at Haustenbeck, a different use seems more appropriate. Various gas tests were carried out in the enclosed space of the specially built Gashalle. The desired gas concentration was built up in the main chamber, while an overpressure was built up in the vehicle by means of a Dräger air filtration device. To keep the vehicle pressurised, the vehicle’s engine had to keep running, which required a constant supply of fresh air. The exhaust gasses were led out the chamber through hoses. For this purpose, there were several exhaust ducts in the test chamber.
“Exhaust ducts are placed all around the room so that only short connections to the tank’s exhaust pipes are required, regardless of its position”CIOS, “Gas-Proofing of Tanks.”
The altered exhaust pipes mounted on V2 provide conveniently placed connecting flanges for the required hoses: one straight to the rear, the other off to the side so that the vehicle could be hooked up regardless of its orientation. The pipes themselves seem of a makeshift design, having been welded together from multiple pieces. The Panther (chassis No. 121 303) at Haustenbeck also had flanges welded to its exhausts. This vehicle, too, was subjected to gas testing.
To Bovington and Beyond
It is safe to assume that V2 was transported to the UK around January 1946 with the other vehicles from Haustenbeck. To date, there are unfortunately no known photographs showing V2 in transit to corroborate this. In the UK the vehicle was studied at the School of Tank Technology (STT) where it received FVDD inventory No. 323416.
In the 1947 report “Motion Studies on German Tanks” we get a good glimpse of V2, which is described as “an early model in reasonably good condition”16. The photos show V2 still mounting its original Gg 24/800/300 tracks. Notably, the tracks have forged connecting links, rarely seen in Tiger II combat tracks. These tracks were later swapped against the single-link Kgs 73/800/152 tracks which originated from chassis No. 280 009 or 280 012 also captured at Haustenbeck.
No Gun, No Glory?
The vehicle entered the collection of the Royal Armoured Corps Tank Museum in 195217, missing a rather prominent feature: its gun. V2’s turret had been thoroughly stripped and was not only lacking its gun barrel, but also its cupola and rear hatch. It has often gone unnoticed in the widely published photograph below (left), that V2 is depicted here without its gun. The visible gun barrel, seemingly poking out from V2’s turret, is actually that of the museum’s Jagdtiger (chassis No. 305 004) standing next to it, which must have arrived at roughly the same time in 1952.
Another image (right), shows the scene from another angle. Although the image is not particularly sharp on the edge, one clearly recognizes V2 does not have a barrel fitted. Possibly, a remainder of the tank’s gun cradle was still present at this time.
Admittedly, a tank without its gun isn’t a pretty sight to see. The museum staff must have agreed with the latter, as by 1956 a gun barrel had been sourced and fitted into the turret. And thus on May 5, 1956, the Duke of Gloucester could admire the Tiger II, now with a gun sticking out18.
For some time, the museum’s information panel claimed the gun was of “a later type fitted to the tank after it arrived in Britain”. However, this appears to be incorrect. The gun, of the early monobloc variety and with an early type muzzle brake, is period correct for V2. What does need to be said, is that until 2017, the barrel was mounted somewhat too far forward, making it appear longer than it should have been.
Is there any ground to doubt the gun is not authentic to V2? Could it have been sourced from another vehicle? To answer these questions, we need to take a closer look at the gun. Markings on the sliding breech read
R 18 FL 134 amp. Indicating the Rohr or piece serial ’18’ and Fertig Lieferant, contract number, ‘134’19. Finally, the three-letter manufacturer code amp corresponds to Dortmund Hoerder Huettenverein (DHHV), which produced all 8,8 cm KwK 43 L/71 gun tubes for the Tiger II3.
By the end of December 1943 a total of 33 8,8 cm KwK 43 L/71 guns had been accepted by the Heereswaffenamt20, and there is thus no doubt that R18 could indeed have been installed in turret 150110.
Another clue is a visual mark on the breech block. This dark discolouration can be seen just above the hole – which is the counter bearing for the detonator – in the breech block. Although the barrel number is not legible in earlier photos, this exact discolouration can be recognized in photos taken of the turret interior in 1947. It therefore seems plausible that the current gun was the one originally installed.
Due to the absence of a gun cradle, the gun used to be kept in place by a stack of bricks wedged between the gun breech and turret roof. Seeing this contraption is unstable to say the least, a new mount was put in place before the tank went on abroad. A steel frame rigidly clamps the breech in place.
Bits and bops
As stated previously, V2 arrived at Bovington with various bits missing. Most of the turret interior is lacking, as well as important drive train components such as the steering gear and transmission. On the outside the missing track guards are noticeable as are the lack of most hatches. At some point, meshes were installed over the missing turret backplate and forward crew hatches. Remarkably, the removable plate in which the latter hatches are seated was reinstalled in reverse. The difference is easy to spot when comparing the cut-outs for the hatches with that of the King Tiger at Saumur (bottom right).
Comparing V2 as it stands now with a detailed walk-around published in Tamiya Magazine in the late eighties, we find that more items have gone missing over time. For example, has since disappeared, as did the gratings over the fan in- and outlets.
Various loose items, such as meshes of the air intakes and fan outlets, were stored inside the vehicle or moved to the museum’s depot. Currently, just one of the original meshes remains in place. I was pleasantly surprised to find a photo that shows at least one section of the original track guard is still on-hand. This photo appears to be taken somewhere around the 80s or 90s. Compared to the Tamiya walk-around, there is at least one thing that was added instead of removed, namely a plastic MG-34 barrel.
The Engine Bay
At this time, the engine, too, is absent, but this was not always the case. V2 featured a seemingly pristine engine bay, when it first entered the collection of the Tank Museum. The book “Superking” contains a photo showing the engine being lifted from its compartment in the early 90s. The Maybach HL 230 P30 engine was meant as a replacement of Tiger 131’s sectioned original HL 210 P45 engine. Unfortunately, the engine block was damaged in late 2001 during a test drive21. The cooling bays adjacent to the engine compartment appear to still be largely complete, featuring the fan assemblies, albeit without actual fans.
A Lick of Paint
Through the years V2 has seen its fair share of paint schemes. When it first arrived in 1952 it still bore its badly beaten up original coat of Dunkelgelb (RAL 7028). In the late 50s to early 60s, the exhibition in the museum’s World War Two hall was reworked. V2 was moved to a new spot in the German Corner, next to the entrance of the Alan Jolly Hall. Around this time, V2 received a uniform coat of dark green before it was later painted an overall yellow. Photos from this time period show the tank with oversized Balkenkreuze in various locations22.
By the early eighties, a camouflage pattern was added consisting of green and red stripes. It now also had the fictional tactical number ‘300’ painted on the turret sides. In this colour configuration, it served as a ‘greeter’ for people entering the World War Two hall with its turret turned towards the entrance. V2, with its tri-colour camouflage, also featured on the cover of the museum’s 1992 exhibition guide booklet.
In preparation for the “Tiger Collection”, V2 was moved for the first time in over 20 years on November 4, 2016. It was repainted dark yellow again, using a mix akin to wartime RAL 7028, in March 2017. It did not receive a camouflage pattern on top of this to keep its appearance authentic, as none had been originally applied at Haustenbeck.
Click here to see the Tank Museum’s video on Face book showing the moving of the King Tiger in 2016.
King Tiger on Tour
After the successful “Tiger Collection” display, the museum’s World War Two hall exhibition was completely redeveloped. The realization phase of this started in December 2019 by moving various vehicles into their new positions. Tiger II V2 did not receive a place in the new exhibition and was therefore moved into temporary storage.
Him or Me: the Netherlands
In early January 2020, the Tiger was first spotted in the Netherlands, on its way to the Nationaal Militair Museum in Soesterberg. It was placed in the museum on January 14, 2020 and was planned to stay till September 2021. Due to the COVID-19 situation, plans changed, and the loan was extended several times, staying until January 2022. Tiger II V2 served as one of the highlights of the “Him or Me” exhibition (14 February 2020 through 9 January 2022), commemorating the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the Netherlands. In the exhibition, it was shown among German matériel, lined-up opposite a selection of mainly Canadian vehicles and tanks. Due to the nearby balcony, there were numerous photo opportunities that would not have been possible in the Tank Museum.
You may notice the two red plates in front of the turret. These wooden plates were secured over the open crew hatches to prevent ingress of water and dirt during transport. While they could have been removed after transport, they remained in place during the entire exhibition.
Next Stop: Sweden
As the Him or Me exhibition at the Nationaal Militair Museum drew to a close, the question was whether the Tiger would return to the Tank Museum in Bovington or continue its journey across Europe. There was a lot of enthusiasm to get the Tiger to Sweden and the Arsenalen museum started a crowdfunding campaign at the end of 2021 to pay for the transport of the Tiger.
At the end of January, the Tiger was removed from the exhibition at Soesterberg and subsequently moved to the museum depot. After some delay, due to the necessary permits, the Tiger transport finally left for Sweden at the end of March. The tank arrived at Arsenalen on 1 April, just in time for the opening of the new exhibition.
The arrival of Tiger II V2 in Sweden is like the prodigal son coming home. A Tiger II had already been brought to the country in 1947, when the Swedish government bought one from France. This tank was used for tests at Skövde, but ended up as a hard target on the Karlsborg firing range in 1948. The only parts left are the engine, transmission with steering gear and the rear turret hatch. These will accompany V2 in the new exhibition. Hopefully, the Tiger will be treated better this time around!
Some years ago, it was discovered that the “Swedish King Tiger” was a very early model Tiger II. The tank in question is chassis number 280 006, referred to as V6, and was assembled in February 1944. It was tested by Wa Prüf 6 at their Kummersdorf and St. Johann proving grounds. The Swedish Armoured Historical Association published an excellent article about it, which can be found here.
That’s the end of V2’s journey for now. It is certain that sooner or later V2 will return to the Tank Museum, but only time can tell whether our traveller will make any other “excursions”.
- United States Strategic Bombing Survey, “Henschel & Sohn Kassel, Germany Plant Report No. 3.”
- Forty, German Tanks of World War II.
- Jentz and Doyle, Germany’s Tiger Tanks VK45.02 to Tiger II.
- Spielberger, Panzer vi Tiger Und Seine Abarten.
- Fröhlich, Schwere Panzer Der Wehrmacht : Von Der 12,8 Cm Flak Bis Zum Jagdtiger., Spielberger, Doyle, and Jentz, Schwere Jagdpanzer Entwicklung – Fertigung – Einsatz.
- Sawatzki, Albin; convinced Nazi and employed by Henschel as Managing and later Technical Director. He was also responsible for the serial production of V-2 rockets and closely involved in the use of concentration camp labour in the underground factory ‘Mittelwerk’.
- Spielberger, Doyle, and Jentz, Schwere Jagdpanzer Entwicklung – Fertigung – Einsatz.
- Arnoldt, “Bericht Über: Auflegen Der Gefechtskette Beim Tiger B (Nr.245).”
- Arnoldt, “„Panther“- Und „Tiger“-Erprobung.- Einzelberichte.”
- Boelcke, Deutschlands Rüstung Im Zweiten Weltkrieg; Hitlers Konferenzen Mit Albert Speer 1942-1945.
- “Programm Für Die Führervorführung Am 16.12.43.”
- “Programm Für Die Führervorführung Am 16.12.43.”, Saur, “Stichworte Für Die Rüstungskartei.”
- Generalinspekteur der Panzertruppe and General der Panzer Abwehr aller Waffen, “Panzer-Erkennungstafel 4; Übersichttafel Der Wichtigsten Panzerfahrzeuge Deutschland Stand 1.11.1944.”
- Jentz and Doyle, Panzer Tracts / 6, Schwere Panzerkampfwagen : D.W. To E-100, Including the Tigers.
- Teichmann, Ludwig. E-mail correspondence with author. 2020-2021
- Motion Study Wing, “Motion Studies of German Tanks.”
- Holt, Jonathan. E-mail correspondence with author. 2021
- Forty and Forty, Bovington Tanks.
- Fletcher, Tiger Tank : Panzerkampfwagen vi Tiger 1 Ausf. E (SdKfz 181).
- Heereswaffenamt, “Überblick Über Den Rüstungsstand Des Heeres (Waffen Und Gerät). Stand 1.12.1944.”
- After this incident and continued engine troubles with a rebuilt engine, Tiger 131 is now on its third engine which was installed in 2004
- Apparently the order was 1) without any 2) only turret sides 3) only hull sides