Haustenbeck’s Heritage: Rise and Fall

The name “Haustenbeck” will ring a bell with many a tank fanatic. Not only were the heavy Tiger tanks tested here by Henschel, but this was also the place where the super-heavy E-100 and Grille 17 prototypes were found. Henschel’s test site near Haustenbeck was one of a kind and deemed invaluable by the Allies after its capture. Therefore activities on the site continued after the war under Allied supervision. Many of the vehicles were sent to the UK for further evaluation. But what actually happened in Haustenbeck, why exactly did Henschel settle here? And how did the E-100 and Grille 17 end up in Haustenbeck at all?

In this multipart series I will take you on my quest for the history of Henschel’s test site in Haustenbeck which hopefully will lead us to some answers to the questions above. The first part will mainly focus on the history and facilities of the proving ground. Upcoming articles will deal with testing activities and vehicles involved in more detail.

I would like to thank Wolfgang Schneider and “Captain Nemo” for their help in obtaining source material for this article. I am particularly indebted to Ludwig Teichmann who kindly answered my questions and contributed a lot of information.

Featured image: Panther, Jagdtiger and two King tigers at Haustenbeck. Source: IWM BU 8016

Table of Contents

A Settlement in the Haustenbachtal

For the origin of Haustenbeck we have to go back to the year 1659. Enclosed between the places Bielefeld and Gütersloh in the northwest and Detmold and Paderborn in the southeast are the vast drifting sand and heathlands of the Senne. It was regarded as a no man’s land and used as a “backyard” by the surrounding towns. The owner of area, Count Hermann Adolf of Lippe-Detmold, implemented some changes such that he could profit from his land.

By reassessing the property boundaries, he pre-empted third party claims to land and by opening up the area he could collect toll from travellers. He built a dam by which the small Haustenbach valley could be passed, offering travellers a shortened route through the Senne. On this spot near the Haustenbach, Adolf founded a new settlement. When the first settlers arrived it was still called das neue Lippische dorf – only later was it renamed “Haustenbeck”.

Stätte Röhrmann No. 6 in 1938. On the location of this farm a 42 meter high observation tower, the Haustenbecker Turm, would be build in 1940. The tower is still there today. Source: Naturwissenschaftlicher und Historischer Verein für das Land Lippe e.V.

According Harteisen, the location of Haustenbeck was superbly chosen: the high ground water level made the land very suitable to agricultural use1. However, this was not true for all of Haustenbeck. Especially the barren sandy soil in the eastern parts made for difficult living conditions. With a lot of effort these parts of the Trockenen Senne (dry Senne) were cultivated to maximize agricultural use, but despite irrigation and fertilizer the yields were meagre.

The number of settlers initially remained low with about 216. The community grew rapidly during the second half of the 19th century and more houses and farms appeared. The village now had its own church and school. From 1901 the main roads were paved. In 1933 the village counted 1217 residents which grew to 1261 in 1939.

Military Growing Pains

Parts of the Senne had been in use for military purposes ever since 18172. At first, a part of the Senne was requisitioned by the Prussian General Command for manoeuvrers and in 1819 the same area was also used by the Landwehr.

Map of the Senne military training area. Source: Nikater (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Later, in 1881, a 15-hectare parade ground was created in the southern part of the Senne for the nearby cavalry garrisons Neuhaus and Paderborn. In the years leading up to 1890 this grew into a 400 ha training area. Subsequently, the parade ground for the cavalry was designated as a general training area for the entire army and grew to an enormous area of 4000 ha. At the same time, several barracks were also built, such as the Südlager (later Sennelager) and the Neue Lager near Augustdorf, to the north, in 1901.

In the prelude to the Second World War, during the period of open rearmament of the Wehrmacht, again large areas of the Senne were declared prohibited territory.

Village in a Fix

When in 1937 the old Landwehr training area between Augustdorf and Haustenbeck is extended to the village boundaries3, Haustenbeck is completely surrounded by training areas. The army has a desire to merge the northern and southern training grounds into one whole: Haustenbeck is in danger of being swallowed up by the Truppenübungsplatz2. Mid 1938 another barracks was established near Augustdorf called the Nordlager (later GFM Rommel Kaserne).

The residents’ long-held fear that their entire village would be incorporated into the training area was therefore not unfounded. Their doom scenario unfolded between 1937 and 1939 when the so-called Reichsumsiedlungsgesellschaft (Ruges) bought up all 228 houses and more than 1710 hectares of land in Haustenbeck2. Established under the authority of the Reichswehr, Ruges’ aim was to make land available for military training grounds and to compensate and relocate those living in such areas to new residential areas. Many residents of Haustenbeck were moved by the Ruges to villages around the Senne, such as Oesterholz and Detmold to the east of the training area. At the end of November 1939 the village school was closed and shortly afterwards the last church service followed: Haustenbeck is almost empty.

Haustenbeck village centre in ruins, seen from the Haustenbecker Turm in the 1950s. Source: Deutsche Artillerie – Artillerie-Gesellschaft-Augustdorf e.V.

Well empty.. nevertheless a number of houses remain inhabited in the old village centre: some families have simply not yet found a new place to live, others work for the army at the Sennelager and are therefore may stay. The Randsiedlung Haustenbeck (edge settlement) in the direction of Oesterholz is also still inhabited by a few families.

In the years that followed, the “Lager Haustenbeck” was mainly used as housing for training soldiers while some buildings were used to house French prisoners of war4. The French prisoners worked in forestry and until 1941 helped build the Haustenbecker Turm, an observation tower for the training area. From mid 1941 they were employed in a furniture factory.

A camp for Russian POWs was later established near Stuckenbrock (Stalag 326 VI-K). A group of Russians was also stationed at No. 134. The latter worked exclusively at Dr. Heinrich Lahrkamp’s farm. Lahrkamp had lived in Haustenbeck No. 68 since 1938 and, as Großpächter (large tenant), managed all the agricultural land of the Senne.

Start of Something New?

The beginning of the end for Haustenbeck was already taking place in 1934. Due to the increased range of modern artillery equipment practiced with at the Südlager, the southernmost houses of Haustenbeck appeared to be quite “in the way”.

Subsequent sales negotiations with homeowners Brinkmann of number 86 and Hagemeier of number 96 came to an end at the end of 19345. Contrary to what you might suspect, these landowners were overjoyed that their land was being bought by Ruges. Agriculture was virtually impossible because the soil was so difficult to cultivate. The owners of the land planted pine trees or cultivated heather in large areas of the site and kept bee colonies there. The only valuable part of the land was right on the Roter Bach where cows could graze along the narrow bank. You could more or less speak of a win-win situation and after negotiations with Ruges, both families left in the first months of 1935 for towns in the area.

An early Tiger tank at the test-drive terrain Sommerberg. Based on the civil registration plate “IT 01887”, the tank is owned by Henschel still (IT is region Hesse-Nassau). Source: Age of Tanks, Episode 2

The Reichswehr’s thirst for land was insatiable: as much space was needed to practice with tanks. That is why, in 1934, also a hectare of land between the Roter Bach and Grimke brooks adjacent to the village was bought – from Sommerberg to “Auf der Horst”. This land was bought from August Walter, who himself lived further east at No. 66. In this way also August finally got rid off his worthless soil. This area was part of the “Haustenbecker Bogen”; an extensive dune area with the highest (up to 20 meter) and largest dunes in the area6.

The area south-east of Haustenbeck, now in possession of the Reichswehr, was offered to the Henschel firm.

Enter Henschel & Sohn GmbH

The company Henschel und Sohn, founded in 1810 in Kassel, was at the time the largest locomotive manufacturer in Europe7. They also built, among other things, trucks and planes. In 1933 Henschel became involved in the plans of the Reichswehrministerium to equip the army with tanks. The firm would serve as one of five Ausweichfirmen to produce the Krupp-designed Landwirtschaftlicher Schlepper (LaS) – a.k.a. the Panzer I. Preparations for production started in September 1933 and the first three vehicles were accepted in April 1934. In July 1934, Henschel was one of the companies competing for the design of an improved tank, the LaS 100 better known as Panzer II8.

Henschel & Sohn GmbH, Kassel-Mittelfeld circa 1935. Source: Kassel-Mittelfeld Industrial Park

Initially, Henschel used the land at the Senne training area as a test-drive site under the direction of Meister Fritz. This resulted in the Einfahrgelände near Sommerberg, which was ideally suited for testing due to its terrain conditions. Henschel’s test-drive personnel was stationed on-site. It is said that the first LaS 100 prototypes were tested here as early as 1935. The same prototypes were also tested at the state test site Kummersdorf in July/August. Although Henschel missed the contract for the development of the Panzer II, it became one of the assembly companies from 1937.

In the years leading up to 1942 Henschel undertook design and construction work for tank concepts in various weight classes, notably the Durchbruchswagen, VK 30.01 and VK 36.01. Their persistence paid off and the firm was awarded a contract to build their VK 45.01. This vehicle built up a fearsome reputation and became famous under the nickname “Tiger”.

Meet Arnoldt

Although many experiments and trials took place at Haustenbeck, Henschel’s Versuchsabteilung (experimental department) was still located in Kassel. Prototypes had to be shipped by low-loader or train from Kassel – and sometimes they drove the stretch under their own power. In order to disguise the cargo’s true nature during the Versailles treaty, the tanks were designated Landwirtschaftliche Maschinen (agricultural machinery). For the same reasons, until 1938 the test site had the cover name Einfahrabteilung für Landwirtschafliche Schlepper (test-drive department for agricultural tractors)9.

Kurt Arnoldt in front of a Tiger II at Haustenbeck. Source: IWM – BU 8017

At the beginning of 1939, the decision was made to relocate the entire Versuchsabteilung under the leadership of the talented engineer Kurt Arnoldt (1896-1988) to “Kampmeiers Stätte” in Haustenbeck. Thus, it would no longer be necessary to drag tanks back and forth. Arnoldt was given unlimited authority from Henschel’s director, Dr. Ing. Stieler von Heydekampf, to set up the test station as he saw fit. The resources to convert the existing buildings and to build the necessary facilities (garages etc.) came from the army. Arnoldt was a very capable engineer and also developed a one-man-tank and a racecar. During the war he also spent some time at Peenemünde where he got in contact with Wernher von Braun.

Panzerversuchsstation 96 at Kampmeiers Stätte

Little could Johannes Brokmann have known that when he built his farm on allotment No. 96 in 1817, the same place would one day be the scene of a tank proving ground10. Brokmann bought the piece of land from Marcus Meier to start a small farm – the site was generally known as Kampmeiers Stätte11. The original house number was retained in the site’s new name, which this time left nothing to guess about its intended purpose: Panzerversuchsstation 96 – literally ‘Experimental tank station’. Sleeping quarters, a canteen and office were set up in the existing buildings.

Streng Geheim!

When the Versuchsabteilung moved onto Kampmeiers Stätte, large parts were screened off from the rest of the training area by wooden fences to keep prowlers out. Göbel specifically mentions the presence of a fence along the Roter bach because of the road on the opposite bank. In addition, three police officers were permanently present to secure the grounds. The area was patrolled military motor and dog patrols. Anyone who came close was arrested and detained at the Sennelager. Photos show the presence of watch towers around the area.

Tiger V3 undergoing submersion, the wooden fences are shown to good effect (right)

The work on the proving ground was strictly confidential. Arnoldt stated during an interview that he and the policemen on the site were constantly monitored9. In reality, anyone who came near or had any contact with the residents of Haustenbeck was closely monitored by the Gestapo. This went so far as the Gestapo gathering intelligence from the pub and shops to determine if information was being leaked. Employees were assured that if they ran their mouths, they could expect a one-way concentration camp ticket. So it’s not difficult to understand that very little was known about what happened at No. 96 and the surrounding land.

After the war, the Allies wrote that “The immediate area is built to resemble a rural farm.”12 Since the buildings of the station used to be an actual farm, this was pretty good cover. To maintain this image to the outside world, the land around the Panzerversuchsstation was worked on – at an appropriate distance to the fence – by prisoners of war led by Lahrkamp.

The Proving Ground: an Overview

As mentioned above, the buildings at No. 96 were converted. Rooms were made in the former stables and living areas (2) so that all employees of the Versuchsabteilung had their own room. There were common areas and a shared kitchen (1). The barn (4) was converted into a guest house. The Haustenbeck-Sennelager road was reinforced and a new bridge was built over the Roter Bach. A special tank access road was constructed leading to the site (near 8).

1) House with canteen and relaxation area
2) Employee quarters
3) Arnoldt’s office
4) Guest house
5) Petrol station
6) Small submersion pool
7) Workshop
8) Corrugated iron hangar
9) Air-raid shelter
10) Kranhalle
11) Tigerhalle
12) Garages
13) Workshop
14) Large submersion pool
15) Pump buildings and pipes
16) Dam
17) Gashalle

Overview of the Versuchsstation based on sketch by Walter Göbel. Location of buildings are approximations and not to scale. Background © Open Street Map / Esri Map

New buildings and facilities were added continually to the proving ground until the end of the war. Garages (12) were built in 1940, and later a 6.5 meter high hall was erected which became known as the “Tigerhalle” (11). Only later was a workshop added next to the Tigerhalle (13). Around 1944 a crane hall (Kranhalle) with a 15-ton crane was built opposite the Tigerhalle.

Gashalle

To the north of the existing facilities, the “Gashalle” (17) was completed in the summer of 1943 after it was ordered in autumn. Climate tests were possible in this pentagonal building with temperature ranging from -20 °C up to about 60 °C. Simulated humidity of up to 100% could be achieved by means of artificial rain. Even sand storms with winds of 14 m/s belonged to the possibilities of the Gashalle. Vehicles were gas proofed here against exhaust gases (CO2) and various poisonous gasses such as mustard gas and hydro-cyanic acid. Gas-tightness tests were initially carried out without crew.

Close-up of the Gashalle. In front, soldiers at the submersion pool

The measured values were sent via numerous cables to be collected at a central measuring point. After the tank was found to be gas proof, the test was carried out again with humans and cats. Some big cats were kept on site and went into the tank with the crew. The cats served as an early warning system because they are more sensitive to gas than humans. According to Göbel, no accidents ever happened during these gas tests.

Tiger V3 just left the pool, here seen with Henschel mechanics and British soldiers – and at the far right Arnoldt. In the background the Gashalle is visible.

Großes Tauchbekken

The large submersion pool was originally built to conduct deep wading trials with Porsche’s Maus. As such Arnoldt was instructed to build a basin able to support a 200 ton tank in September 1942. The cost of construction was 250,000 Reichsmarks. Supposedly, a number of POWs from the nearby camp were used as forced labourers during construction, but there is no concrete evidence that such an Arbeitskommando ever existed.

The submersion pool after its completion in 1943.

The basin was built between the workshops and the Roter Bach. To bear the enormous weight of the Maus, the bottom was made of 60 cm thick concrete. The dimensions were 18 by 60 meters and at its deepest point the basin was 6.66 meters deep. The entrance and exit had an increase of 15 degrees. The enormous amount of water, about 2200 m3, was extracted from the Roter Bach. By means of a dam, a reservoir was created from which water could be pumped into the basin. In an emergency, it could be emptied in 9 to 11 minutes via 2 drainage points. The reservoir would later be known as Lahrkamp’s Ententeich (duck pond) ⁠– for reasons that become apparent later. Construction was completed at the beginning of 1943. According to Göbel’s drawing, there was also a smaller submersion pool on the site, but there is no further information about this.

By means of a command bridge – initially short – the activities in the basin could be monitored. There was also a small observation building containing measuring equipment and radios that were in contact with the driver of the waterborne vehicle. Using an array of signal lamps (Blinkgerät), 18 different signals could be given13.

Kummersdorf vs. Haustenbeck

Although it was commonplace in the German AFV industry to perform short trials on tanks of own manufacture, development and endurance trials were generally conducted at the state proving ground Kummersdorf. At Kummersdorf, Wa Prüf 6 had their own proving ground: Heeresversuchsstelle für Panzer und Motorisierung (Verskraft). From 1938 a modernised facility Verskraft Neu was established west of Kummersdorf14. At Kummersdorf a shooting range and Klimahalle, for climate tests, were available as well as a extensive test-drive area15. Vehicles retained at the Verskraft usually received a number stencilled onto their hull or turret.

Porsche Tiger (Wanne 150 002, Turm 150 003) at Kummersdorf shooting range. In the background the Klimahalle.

Besides testing domestic tank designs, various tanks of opposing nations were studied at the Verskraft. A collection of American, Russian and British vehicles was trialled here. Possibly similar trials with enemy equipment were conducted at Haustenbeck, as a Russian KV-1 tank was on hand. Surprisingly, Arnoldt did not think any enemy tanks were studied in-depth despite a number of them being at Kummersdorf.

Panzerversuchsstation 96 mainly contributed on Tiger development and also performed research on AFV submersibility and gas proofing. Apart from this, experimental work on suspensions, transmissions and storage arrangements was conducted. Henschel’s facilities were one of kind in the German tank building industry. Arnoldt later told his captors that…

“(…) the Henschel Proving Ground was the most scientifically equipped automotive proving ground for tanks in Germany”

Kurt Arnoldt, April 194516

Haustenbeck mainly undertook trials on the Tiger series. Most, if not all, of the design changes to the Tiger I and II went through testing there17. Personnel of the Tiger-Lehrgänge at Paderborn worked closely together with the Henschel mechanics and engineers to improve the design. Over time Haustenbeck also performed trials on other vehicles, such as the Panther.

When Arnoldt was asked why only Henschel had its own proving ground, he replied that “other firms producing AFVs on a large scale did not believe in building large experimental AFV establishments as they foresaw an early end to the war and wished to conserve their money for experimental work for peacetime products.”9

Allied ‘interference’

In April 1945, the American XIX Corps rapidly advanced on Paderborn. The unit history of the 3rd Armored Division “Spearhead” described this area as the “Fort Knox of Germany”18. Heavy fighting for the cities around the training area ensued. In a last-ditch attempt a task force Panzergruppe Paderborn was thrown together to fend off the invaders. To avoid encirclement, units at the training area under Generalmajor Goerbig left the training area and took up blocking positions near the Augustdorf-Detmold road in front of the Teutoburger Wald. But their positions were untenable19. Later they retreated towards the Weser river and Harz mountains.

Entering the training area from the direction of Stukenbrock, on 2 April the vanguard of the 2nd Armored Division reaches Haustenbeck5. At the southern outskirts they find one of Germany’s largest tank proving grounds: and almost undamaged at that. The next day the proving ground is occupied and used for some time as shelter for displaced people and Russian POWs from the liberated Stalag 326.

On 22 April, the 751st Field Artillery Battalion mentions their encounter with the facilities at Haustenbeck:

“A Tank Proving Ground located at 721700 was disclosed and proved of interest and importance.”

The unit history relates further that documents and other relevant items were examined and taken over by ETOUSA intelligence. Arnoldt must have been on his post again, as they “questioned the engineer in charge” on the same day20. Under the command of Major Frank X. Armiger, the 751st FA Battalion performed security duties in the area and was in charge of the proving ground16.

American soldier inspecting the large perforated muzzle brake of the Grille 17’s 17.2 cm gun. Behind him is Tiger V3, partly disassembled and without a turret (April/May 1945). Source: ETO Technical Intelligence Report No. 288.

The research and development carried out at Haustenbeck was recognised to be of such importance, that work was ordered to be continued on behalf of the US Army. From the summer of 1945, the area fell in the British occupation zone and the 21st Army Group took over the proving ground. From that point on work was overseen by General Major Percy Hobart – well known for his division of ‘funnies'17. Arnoldt developed a good relation with the Allies. He visited the United Kingdom several times and Hobart arranged for him to come over to celebrate VE day in London21.

The Curtain Falls

For some time after the war various German vehicles are repaired at Haustenbeck. Apparently also a ‘French’ Jagdtiger 323 was repaired in the workshop22 – possibly this tank ended up in the Sennelager museum. Repair and maintenance work continues until the end of 1945 after which the site is used by a British tank training unit until September 194623.

Subsequently the site was given back to Lahrkamp, large tenant of the area, who founded a duck farm here. As Lahrkamp got along very well with the Allies he was appointed mayor of the Sennelager for some time. He also took care of the fields around Haustenbeck that had been taken over by the British occupier.

The main building in September 1956. Source: Göbel / Teichmann

After the Allied authorities dissolved Lahrkamps’ lease agreement in 1959, the facility is finally blown up. In the early 1960s, Lahrkamp leaves the Senne region for good and moves to France where he died in 1971. Nowadays, the former proving ground is mostly overgrown with trees and bushes. There is no indication that cutting edge research and development on tanks ever took place here, save for a large dip in the terrain – which is all that is left of the large submersion pool.

In the next part(s) some of the trials and vehicles at Haustenbeck will be further discussed. In particular we will have a look at how the E-100 and Grille 17 and some other vehicles ended up at Haustenbeck. I hope you enjoyed reading about Haustenbeck so far. Stay tuned for the sequel.

Bibliography

751st Field Artillery Battalion. History: 751st Field Artillery Battalion. Sites.Google.Com. Accessed August 2020. https://sites.google.com/site/751stfieldartillerybattalion/751st-FABN-WWII/Unit-History.

Biere, Olaf. “Haustenbeck–Verzeichnis Der Kolonate.” Der Genealogische Abend. Naturwissenschaftlicher und Historischer Verein für das Land Lippe e.V., April 2005. http://www.nhv-ahnenforschung.de/Hausnummern/html/Orte/haustenbeck.htm.

BIOS. “The Henschel Panzerversuchsstation, Haustenbeck, Paderborn.” In Investigations in Germany by Tank Armament Research, Ministry of Supply. British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, 1946.

“Brokmann, Haustenbeck Nr. 96 (Errichtung Einer Neuwohnerstätte an Der Roten Kuhle Durch Johann Brokmann).” Landesarchiv NRW Abteilung Ostwestfalen-Lippe, 1817. https://www.archive.nrw.de/LAV_NRW/jsp/findbuch.jsp?archivNr=409&id=0234&klassId=21&verzId=666&expandId=18&tektId=169&bestexpandId=148&suche=1.

Butterly, Patrick. “Sennelager Ranges and Training Area.” BAOR Locations. Accessed August 2020. http://www.baor-locations.org/Sennelagerranges.aspx.html.

CIOS. “The Henschel Tank Proving Ground.” Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee Evaluation Report No. 224, July 1945.

Deutsche Artillerie – Artillerie-Gesellschaft-Augustdorf e.V. “TrpÜbPl Senne.” GFM-Rommel-Kaserne. Accessed August 2020. http://www.gfm-rommel-kaserne.org/Kaserne/trpubpl_senne.html.

ETOUSA. “Preliminary Report on Henschel Tank Proving Ground.” ETO Ordnance Technical Intelligence Report No. 288, May 1945.

Fleischer, Wolfgang. Die Heeresversuchstelle Kummersdorf. Podzun-Pallas, 1995.

Forty, George. German Tanks of World War II. Blandford, 1988.

Fröhlich, Michael. Der Andere Tiger Der Panzerkampfwagen Porsche Typ 101. Stuttgart: Motorbuch, 2019.

———. Überschwere Panzerprojekte Konzepte Und Entwürfe Der Wehrmacht. Motorbuch, 2016.

Göbel, Walter. “Panzerversuchsstation 96 Haustenbeck Auf Kampmeiers Stätte.” In Haustenbeck Gründung 1659 – Auflösung 1939 – 50 Jahre Nach Der Auflösung 1989, 51–69. Heimat- Und Verkehrsverein Oesterholz-Haustenbeck, 1989.

GSI. “Interrogation of Herr Kurt Arnoldt, Chief Technical Engineer Henschel AFV Research and Experimental Establishment at Haustenbeck.” 21 Army Group Technical Report No. 5, May 1945.

———. “New Super Heavy German AFVs.” 21 Army Group Technical Report No. 2, May 1945.

Harteisen, U. “Die Bedeutung Historischer Kulturlandschaften Für Den Naturschutz.” Göttinger Naturkundliche Schriften 5, 1999.

“Haustenbeck in Der Senne.” Www.Haustenbeck.Grothe4u.Com, 2011. http://www.haustenbeck.grothe4u.com/index.htm.

Heimat- Und Verkehrsverein Oesterholz-Haustenbeck. Haustenbeck Gründung 1659 – Auflösung 1939 – 50 Jahre Nach Der Auflösung 1989. Heimat- Und Verkehrsverein Oesterholz-Haustenbeck, 1989.

Hohmann, Friedirch Gerhard. “Das Ende Des Zweiten Weltkrieges Im Raum Paderborn.” Westfälische Zeitschrift 130, 1980. https://www.lwl.org/westfaelische-geschichte/txt/normal/txt1385.pdf.

Jentz, Thomas L, and Hilary L Doyle. Germany’s Tiger Tanks : D.W. to Tiger I. Schiffer, 2000.

———. Panzerkampfwagen II : Ausf.a/1, a/2, a/3, b, c, a, b, and c ; Development and Production from 1934 to 1940. Panzer Tracts, 2008.

Quente, Alexander. “Die Binnendünen Der Senne – Eine Übersicht Über Entstehung, Verbreitung Und Bestand.” Berichte Des Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein Für Bielefeld Und Umgegend 49, 2010.

Schneider, Wolfgang. “Technical Trials at Senne.” In Tigers in Combat. Volume III, 107–118. Helion & Company, 2016.

Spielberger, Walter J. Panzer VI Tiger Und Seine Abarten. Motorbuch, 2010.

Verein für Computergenealogie. “Haustenbeck.” GenWiki, 2017. http://genwiki.genealogy.net/Haustenbeck.

———. “Johannes BROCKMANN.” GEDBAS, August 2020. https://gedbas.de/person/show/1207288968.

Weiß, Michael. “Die Senne.” In Westfälische Erinnerungsorte : Beiträge Zum Kollektiven Gedächtnis Einer Region, 215–221. Ferdinand Schöningh, 2017.

Woolner, Frank, Murray H Fowler, and United States. Army. 3D Armored Division. Spearhead in the West : The Third Armored Division, 1941-45. Battery Press, 1980.

Footnotes

  1. Harteisen, “Die Bedeutung Historischer Kulturlandschaften Für Den Naturschutz.”[]
  2. Weiß, “Die Senne.”[][][]
  3. Deutsche Artillerie – Artillerie-Gesellschaft-Augustdorf e.V, “TrpÜbPl Senne.”[]
  4. Heimat- Und Verkehrsverein Oesterholz-Haustenbeck, Haustenbeck Gründung 1659 – Auflösung 1939 – 50 Jahre Nach Der Auflösung 1989.[]
  5. Göbel, “Panzerversuchsstation 96 Haustenbeck Auf Kampmeiers Stätte.”[][]
  6. Quente, “Die Binnendünen Der Senne – Eine Übersicht Über Entstehung, Verbreitung Und Bestand.”[]
  7. Forty, German Tanks of World War II.[]
  8. Jentz and Doyle, Panzerkampfwagen II : Ausf.a/1, a/2, a/3, b, c, a, b, and c ; Development and Production from 1934 to 1940.[]
  9. GSI, “Interrogation of Herr Kurt Arnoldt, Chief Technical Engineer Henschel AFV Research and Experimental Establishment at Haustenbeck.”[][][]
  10. Landesarchiv NRW Abteilung Ostwestfalen-Lippe, “Brokmann, Haustenbeck Nr. 96 (Errichtung Einer Neuwohnerstätte an Der Roten Kuhle Durch Johann Brokmann).”, Verein für Computergenealogie, “Johannes BROCKMANN.”[]
  11. Both names, Brokmann and Meier, are subject to alternative spelling. In literature Brockmann and Meyer are also used.[]
  12. ETOUSA, “Preliminary Report on Henschel Tank Proving Ground.”[]
  13. Spielberger, Panzer VI Tiger Und Seine Abarten.[]
  14. Fleischer, Die Heeresversuchstelle Kummersdorf.[]
  15. Fröhlich, Der Andere Tiger Der Panzerkampfwagen Porsche Typ 101.[]
  16. CIOS, “The Henschel Tank Proving Ground.”[][]
  17. Schneider, “Technical Trials at Senne.”[][]
  18. Woolner, Fowler, and United States. Army. 3D Armored Division, Spearhead in the West : The Third Armored Division, 1941-45., 145.[]
  19. Hohmann, Friedirch Gerhard, “Das Ende Des Zweiten Weltkrieges Im Raum Paderborn.”[]
  20. 751st Field Artillery Battalion, History: 751st Field Artillery Battalion.[]
  21. Butterly, “Sennelager Ranges and Training Area.”[]
  22. Fröhlich, Überschwere Panzerprojekte Konzepte Und Entwürfe Der Wehrmacht.[]
  23. Göbel, “Panzerversuchsstation 96 Haustenbeck Auf Kampmeiers Stätte.”, Schneider, “Technical Trials at Senne.”[]

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